ADHD is a neurobiologist disorder that usually have characteristics: lack of attention, easy to switch the attention, and hyperactivity. ADHD is associated with behavioral disorders and cognitive activity such as thinking, remembering, describing, summarizing, organizing, and others. Some chronic characteristics usually start to appear in early childhood, they are not caused by other physical disorders, mental retardation, or emotional problems. If the situation is not handled properly, children would have high risk for disturbance in learning ability, decrease self-esteem, social problems, many difficulties, and potentially affect long time.

More and more children are diagnosed with this disorder with or without hyperactivity,
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which are generally accompanied by problems of learning disabilities and other behavioral emotional problems. New parents aware of this problem usually when the children were sitting in first grade. It turned out that the children can not immediately follow the course to read and write fluently like the other friends. Teachers report that children less attention to lessons, indifferent, lazy, or careless.
Children and Adult with Attention Deficit Disorder (1994) mentioned that about 3 to 5 percent of students have ADHD. American Psychiatric Association states that the incidence of ADHD, with or without hyperaktivity is 1 to 20 percent in school age children. In Indonesia, there are no national data because only few researches are done. Research in Gamping (Yogyakarta) obtains prevalence of 3 percent children are diagnosed ADHD.

Research is conducted by Gamayanti, Kumara, and Firngadi (1999) in all of the kindergartens in Yogyakarta city shows that from 3233 children, there are found 215 children with ADHD, with or without hyperaktivitas (6.68%). 82,4% or 177 children are persons with ADD and 17.6% or 38 children are ADHD. ADHD Disorder with or without hyperaktivity is suffered by more boys than girls, but lately the number of girls who suffer this disorder become larger.
Although no official figures on a study of children with ADHD, but the world number of patients ranged 30-10 percent of the children’s population. The study in Indonesia’s capital city (Jakarta )in 2002 mentions that from 100 elementary schools, there are 4 children are diagnosed ADHD.

We need to use the formation of behavioral therapy to treate ADHD. One important thing to remember is this therapy is a diagnosis that’s very subjective because it depends on the assessment of the family, community, and teachers who provide an assessment of the children's behavior and does not depend on the specific diagnosis. Each family would has different views with the others (teachers or other community). Because it is a very subjective, we caution required in assessing the behavior of our children.

By : Agil Azzahra

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