Period means the circle of time. In this case, the period is periodization. This is a way to facilitate understanding of child development, namely by determining the stages of child's age to be educated in accordance with the physical and psychological condition.

The development is a process from childhood to reach maturity and character of progress or perfection of personality. In other words, development is the emergence of new things, for example, children who initially self-centered, it will eventually turn into a social, and if it was once full of fantasy life, in time they would like reality.
Based on the above understanding, the periodicity of child development can be summed up as age stages children to know the new changes or the changes are more advanced in children. Therefore, parents should know the correct phases of child development so as to provide appropriate education supplements, in accordance with the physical and psychological condition of children.

Child said to grow where it has been experiencing positive changes over time. Thus, these changes are ongoing so it is a development that is dynamic. In other words, development in children does not occur spontaneously, but it happens gradually.

Broadly speaking, there are three basic phases of the division of child development, namely:
1. Periodization based on biological
2. Periodization based didactic
3. Periodization based psychological

Among the three basic division, the periodization based psychological occupy the most important positions in the phases of child development, for the periodization is based on the circumstances, based psychological and psychiatric characteristics of children at any given time. There are some people who had divided the phases of child development based on a psychological standpoint. The characters include:

1. Oswald Kroch
People are looking for a psychological state that is typical of where each child in the development, which can be used to determine periodicity. Kroch found that each child during its development experienced periods of shock. This period by Kroch called Trotz Period.
Trotz guided by the period, then Kroch dividing periodization of development in three phases namely:
a. Trotz Phase I (ages 0-3 years).
This phase is also called childhood.
b. Trotz Phase II (ages 3-13 years).
This phase is also called the school ‘s harmony.
c. Trotz Phase III (age 13 years until the age of late teens).
This phase is called the period of maturity.

2. Robert J. Havighurst
In his book "Human Development and Education", Havighurst has outlined the phases of the development of the children to the elderly. Phases of child development include:
a. Infancy and Early Childhood (the babies and small children), which is aged 0-6 years
b. Middle Childhood (the school age), the age of 6-12 years
c. Adolescence, the age of 12-18 years
d. Early Adulthood, the age 18-30
e. Middle Age (advanced adulthood), the age of 30-50 years
f. Old Age, the age of 50 years and over

3. Prof. Kohntamn
This figure has divided the periodization of child development as follows:
a. Age 0-2 years, called the vital
b. Age 2-7 years, called the aesthetic, intellectual
c. Age 13 or 14 to 20 or 21 years, called the social

Development phases described by the figures above are characteristic of children during certain psychological, so that when parents and teachers know about the phases of child development, so parents and teachers will know the state of children's psychological, so that education supplement given would be appropriate to the circumstances of children.

By : Agil Azzahra

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